Peace negotiations were divided in parallel across five geographical regions: President Salva Kiir was speaking on national television on December 16 after abandoning his characteristic costume and cowboy hat due to military fatigue, and said, surrounded by government officials, that the coup had been foiled and orchestrated by a group of soldiers, Who were allied with the former vice president.    On December 21, the government announced its unconditional willingness to conduct peace talks with any rebel group, including Machar. In a Christmas message, Kiir warned that the fighting would become a tribal conflict.  Chief Whip and deputy of the great state of Ostäquatoria, Tulio Odongi Ayahu, announced his support for Kiir.  The youth group close to the SPLM condemned the attempted overthrow of Kiir.  The first ceasefire agreement was reached in January 2014. Fighting continued and several other ceasefire agreements followed. The negotiations were conducted by “IGAD+” (which includes the eight regional nations designated as intergovernmental authority for development, as well as the African Union, the United Nations, China, the EU, the United States, the United Kingdom and Norway). A peace agreement was signed in August 2015, known as the Peace Agreement.  Machar returned to Juba in 2016 and was appointed vice president.  After a second outbreak of fighting within Juba, the SPLM-IO fled to the surrounding and previously peaceful equatorial region. Kiir replaced Machar as first vice president with Taban Deng Gai, divided the opposition, and rebel fighting became an important part of the conflict.   Rivalries between the Dinka factions led by the president and Paul Malong Awan have also resulted in fighting.
 Another power-sharing agreement came into effect in August 2018.  On February 22, 2020, rivals Kiir and Machar concluded a union treaty and formed a coalition government.  The agreement included religions, movements, etc., and defined a federal structure with a revenue-sharing formula and different powers conferred on each state. The agreement set out a four-year transition period to recover from the civil war in the Global South, with a Coordinating Council of Southern States to oversee the transition.  Riek Machar was appointed President of the Coordinating Council of the Southern States. He was also appointed commander-in-chief of the South Sudan Defence Forces (SDF), most of which are former rebels who signed the Khartoum agreement.  The SSDF would maintain the autonomy of the army, subject to a joint military technical committee for coordination between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the SSDF. A referendum on South Sudan`s secession would be held with international observers before the end of the transition period.  On December 24, Hemetti, on behalf of the Sovereignist Council, and el-Tom Hajo, deputy head of the SRF and head of the central track negotiation team, signed a peace agreement on “development, peasant issues, the el Gezira and El Managil agricultural program, land rights and a fair distribution of wealth.” Hajo described the deal as “inclusive” without “quotas or positions.”  In December 2017, a cessation of hostilities agreement was reached, but it never actually entered into force.
[Citation required] In August 2017, Kiir announced that the army`s new name would be the South Sudan People`s Defense Forces (UPF), “out of the need to represent the will of the people.” . . .